Contributor ER: Erich Round

Comparative analysis of Australian phoneme inventories by Erich Round.

Inventory Language Segments Vowels Consonants Tones
Pitta Pitta (ER 2763) Pitta Pitta 26 5 21 0
Wangkayutyuru (ER 2764) Wanggamala 26 5 21 0
Kungkari (ER 2765) Kuungkari of Barcoo River 25 6 19 0
Burarra (ER 2629) Burarra 26 5 21 0
Bunuba (ER 2630) Bunaba 24 4 20 0
Gooniyandi (ER 2631) Gooniyandi 23 4 19 0
Matngele (ER 2632) Madngele 22 5 17 0
Malak-Malak (ER 2633) Mullukmulluk 19 5 14 0
Murrinh-patha (ER 2634) Murrinhpatha 28 4 24 0
Ngan'gityemerri (ER 2635) Nangikurrunggurr 23 4 19 0
Patjtjamalh (ER 2636) Wadjiginy 22 5 17 0
Marramaninyshi (ER 2637) Marimanindji 20 4 16 0
Marringarr (ER 2638) Maringarr 32 4 28 0
Marrithiyel (ER 2639) Marithiel 24 4 20 0
Marti Ke (ER 2640) Marti Ke 31 4 27 0
Emmi (ER 2641) Ami 32 5 27 0
Larrakia (ER 2642) Laragia 24 6 18 0
Limilngan (ER 2643) Limilngan 25 3 22 0
Umbugarla (ER 2644) Umbugarla 25 8 17 0
Garrwa (ER 2645) Garrwa 17 3 14 0
Waanyi (ER 2646) Wanyi 20 6 14 0
Kunindirri (ER 2647) Garrwa 17 3 14 0
Erre (ER 2648) Erre 23 5 18 0
Mengerrdji (ER 2649) Mangerr 23 5 18 0
Urningangg (ER 2650) Urningangg 23 5 18 0
Anindilyakwa (ER 2651) Anindilyakwa 26 4 22 0
Dalabon (ER 2652) Ngalkbun 29 6 23 0
Gaagudju (ER 2653) Gaagudju 27 10 17 0
Ngalakgan (ER 2654) Ngalakgan 27 5 22 0
Ngandi (ER 2655) Ngandi 35 9 26 0
Gun-Dedjnjenghmi (ER 2656) Kundjeyhmi 27 5 22 0
Gun-Djeihmi (ER 2657) Kundjeyhmi 27 5 22 0
Kune (ER 2658) Kune 28 6 22 0
Kuninjku (ER 2659) Kuninjku 27 5 22 0
Kunwinjku (ER 2660) Kunwinjku 27 5 22 0
Mayali (ER 2661) Manyallaluk Mayali 27 5 22 0
Jawoyn (ER 2662) Jawoyn 27 5 22 0
Rembarrnga (ER 2663) Rembarrnga 28 6 22 0
Warray (ER 2664) Warray 21 5 16 0
Wubuy (ER 2665) Wubuy 25 6 19 0
Amurdak (ER 2666) Amurdak 24 3 21 0
Marrgu (ER 2667) Margu 26 3 23 0
Wurrugu (ER 2668) Wurrugu 23 3 20 0
Mawng (ER 2669) Mawng 22 5 17 0
Garig (ER 2670) Garig 24 3 21 0
Ilgar (ER 2671) Ilgar 24 3 21 0
Iwaidja (ER 2672) Iwaidja 23 3 20 0
Miriwoong (ER 2673) Miriwung 20 4 16 0
Kija (ER 2674) Kitja 24 5 19 0
Kungarakany (ER 2675) Kungarakany 22 5 17 0
Ndjebbana (ER 2676) Djeebbana 21 5 16 0
Gurr-Goni (ER 2677) Guragone 27 5 22 0
Nakara (ER 2678) Nakara 25 5 20 0
Marra (ER 2679) Marra 23 4 19 0
Warndarrang (ER 2680) Wandarang 20 3 17 0
Alawa (ER 2681) Alawa 26 4 22 0
Mangarrayi (ER 2682) Mangarrayi 22 5 17 0
Jaminjung (ER 2683) Jaminjung-Ngaliwurru 22 4 18 0
Ngaliwurru (ER 2684) Ngaliwurru 21 4 17 0
Nungali (ER 2685) Nungali 17 3 14 0
Ngarnka (ER 2686) Ngarnka 21 4 17 0
Jingulu (ER 2687) Jingulu 20 3 17 0
Binbinka (ER 2688) Binbinka 23 6 17 0
Gudanji (ER 2689) Gudanji 19 3 16 0
Wambaya (ER 2690) Wambayan 23 6 17 0
Minkin (ER 2691) Minkin 23 3 20 0
Ngumbarl (ER 2692) Ngumbarl 20 3 17 0
Nyikina (ER 2693) Nyigina 20 3 17 0
Warrwa (ER 2694) Warrwa 20 3 17 0
Jukun (ER 2695) Dyugun 28 6 22 0
Yawuru (ER 2696) Yawuru 28 6 22 0
Bardi (ER 2697) Bardi 24 7 17 0
Nimanburu (ER 2698) Nimanbur 23 6 17 0
Jabirr-Jabirr (ER 2699) Dyaberdyaber 20 3 17 0
Jawi (ER 2700) Djawi 20 3 17 0
Nyulnyul (ER 2701) Nyulnyul 20 3 17 0
Alyawarr (ER 2702) Alyawarr 43 3 40 0
Eastern Anmatyerre (ER 2703) Eastern Anmatyerre 44 4 40 0
Western Anmatyerre (ER 2704) Western Anmatyerre 44 4 40 0
Antekerrepenhe (ER 2705) Andegerebinha 44 4 40 0
Central Arrernte (ER 2706) Mparntwe Arrernte 44 4 40 0
Ayerrerenge (ER 2707) Ayerrerenge 43 4 39 0
Eastern Arrernte (ER 2708) Eastern Arrernte 44 4 40 0
Lower Southern Aranda (ER 2709) Lower Southern Aranda 44 4 40 0
Western Arrernte (ER 2710) Western Arrarnta 44 4 40 0
Kaytetye (ER 2711) Kaytetye 43 3 40 0
Bundjalung (ER 2712) Yugumbir 20 8 12 0
Gidabal (ER 2713) Gidabal 21 8 13 0
Guwar (ER 2714) Guwar 19 6 13 0
Minjungbal (ER 2715) Minjangbal 20 8 12 0
Waalubal (ER 2716) Waalubal 20 8 12 0
Buwandik (ER 2717) Bunganditj 23 3 20 0
Warrnambool (ER 2718) Warrnambool 26 6 20 0
Gamilaraay (ER 2719) Yuwaalaraay-Gamilaraay 21 6 15 0
Muruwari (ER 2720) Muruwari 25 6 19 0
Ngiyambaa (ER 2721) Ngiyambaa 21 6 15 0
Wayilwan (ER 2722) Wayilwan 21 6 15 0
Wiradjuri (ER 2723) Wiradhuri 21 6 15 0
Wiriyaraay (ER 2724) Wirriyaraay 21 6 15 0
Yuwaalaraay (ER 2725) Yuwaalaraay 21 6 15 0
Yuwaliyaay (ER 2726) Yuwaalayaay 21 6 15 0
Dhudhuroa (ER 2727) Dhudhuroa 21 6 15 0
Jandai (ER 2728) Jandai 19 6 13 0
Djindewal (ER 2729) djindewal 19 6 13 0
Turubul (ER 2730) Yagara 19 6 13 0
Yagara (ER 2731) Yagara 19 6 13 0
Dyirbal (ER 2732) Dyirbal 16 3 13 0
Warrgamay (ER 2733) Warrgamay 19 6 13 0
Baanbay (ER 2734) Kumbainggar 19 6 13 0
Gumbaynggir (ER 2735) Kumbainggar 19 6 13 0
Yaygir (ER 2736) Yaygir 20 6 14 0
Guwa (ER 2737) Guwa 23 3 20 0
Yanda (ER 2738) Yanda 24 3 21 0
Kalkatungu (ER 2739) Kalkutung 26 6 20 0
Yalarnnga (ER 2740) Yalarnnga 24 4 20 0
Payungu (ER 2741) Bayungu 26 6 20 0
Purduna (ER 2742) Burduna 26 6 20 0
Thalanyji (ER 2743) Dhalandji 26 6 20 0
Jiwarli (ER 2744) Djiwarli 26 6 20 0
Tharrkari (ER 2745) Dhargari 31 6 25 0
Thiin (ER 2746) Thiin 26 6 20 0
Warriyangga (ER 2747) Wariyangga 26 6 20 0
Mithaka (ER 2748) Mithaka 29 3 26 0
Diyari (ER 2749) Dieri 25 3 22 0
Thirarri (ER 2750) Dirari 25 3 22 0
Karangura (ER 2751) Karangura 25 3 22 0
Ngamini (ER 2752) Ngamini 25 3 22 0
Pirlatapa (ER 2753) Pirlatapa 25 3 22 0
Yandruwandha (ER 2754) Yandruwandha 30 4 26 0
Nhirrpi (ER 2755) Nhirrpi 29 3 26 0
Yawarrawarrka (ER 2756) Yawarawarga 30 4 26 0
Yarluyandi (ER 2757) Dieri 24 3 21 0
Punthamara (ER 2758) Punthamara 21 3 18 0
Kungardutji (ER 2759) Wangkumara 30 4 26 0
Wangkumara (ER 2760) Wangkumara 30 4 26 0
Arabana (ER 2761) Arabana 24 3 21 0
Wangkangurru (ER 2762) Wangganguru 24 3 21 0
Pirriya (ER 2766) Pirriya 24 5 19 0
Garlali (ER 2767) Kalali 21 3 18 0
Badimaya (ER 2768) Badimaya 23 3 20 0
Malkana (ER 2769) Malgana 26 6 20 0
Nhanda (ER 2770) Nhanda 33 6 27 0
Watjarri (ER 2771) Wajarri 26 6 20 0
Yingkarta (ER 2772) Yinggarda 26 6 20 0
Kolakngat (ER 2773) Colac 22 5 17 0
Daungwurrung (ER 2774) Daungwurrung 23 3 20 0
Boonwurrung (ER 2775) Woiwurrung 23 3 20 0
Wathawurrung (ER 2776) Wathawurrung 23 3 20 0
Woiwurrung (ER 2777) Woiwurrung 23 3 20 0
Yari-Yari (ER 2778) Yari-Yari 23 3 20 0
Ladji-Ladji (ER 2779) Ladji Ladji 21 4 17 0
Madhi-Madhi (ER 2780) Madhi Madhi 20 4 16 0
Wathi Wathi (ER 2781) Wadi Wadi 21 4 17 0
East Djadjawurung (ER 2782) Western Victoria 21 4 17 0
Jardwadjali (ER 2783) Djadjawurrungic 21 4 17 0
Nari Nari (ER 2784) Nari Nari 23 5 18 0
Djabwurung (ER 2785) Djabwurrung 21 4 17 0
Wemba Wemba (ER 2786) Wemba Wemba 22 6 16 0
Wotjobaluk (ER 2787) Wotjobaluk 19 4 15 0
Bidhawal (ER 2788) Birrdhawal 25 8 17 0
Muk-Thang (ER 2789) Ganai 22 5 17 0
Thangguai (ER 2790) Ganai 22 5 17 0
Nulit (ER 2791) Ganai 22 5 17 0
Keramin (ER 2792) Keramin 23 3 20 0
Ngayawang (ER 2793) Lower Riverland 23 3 20 0
Ngintait (ER 2794) Ngindadj 23 3 20 0
Yaraldi (ER 2795) Narrinyeri 25 5 20 0
Yitha Yitha (ER 2796) Yitha Yitha 23 3 20 0
Bidyara (ER 2797) Bidyara 20 4 16 0
Barada (ER 2798) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Barna (ER 2799) Biri 18 3 15 0
Biri (ER 2800) Biri 18 3 15 0
Gabalbara (ER 2801) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Gangulu (ER 2802) Gangulu 22 6 16 0
Ganulu (ER 2803) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Garingbal (ER 2804) Biri 18 3 15 0
Miyan (ER 2805) Biri 18 3 15 0
Wiri (ER 2806) Biri 18 3 15 0
Yambina (ER 2807) Biri 18 3 15 0
Yangga (ER 2808) Biri 18 3 15 0
Yetimarala (ER 2809) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Yilba (ER 2810) Biri 18 3 15 0
Yuwi (ER 2811) Biri 18 3 15 0
Dharawala (ER 2812) Bidyara 17 3 14 0
Dharumbal (ER 2813) Dharumbal 21 3 18 0
Gungabula (ER 2814) Gungabula 20 4 16 0
Gunggari (ER 2815) Kunggari 18 3 15 0
Gunya (ER 2816) Gunya 31 6 25 0
Margany (ER 2817) Margany 31 6 25 0
Gudjal (ER 2818) Gudjal 18 3 15 0
Gugu Badhun (ER 2819) Gugu Badhun 17 3 14 0
Warungu (ER 2820) Warrongo 17 4 13 0
Wadjabangay (ER 2821) Bidyara 18 3 15 0
Wangan (ER 2822) Biri 18 3 15 0
Yandjibara (ER 2823) Bidyara 21 3 18 0
Yiningay (ER 2824) Bidyara 19 3 16 0
Karajarri (ER 2825) Karadjeri 21 4 17 0
Mangala (ER 2826) Mangala 24 7 17 0
Nyangumarta (ER 2827) Nyangumarta 21 4 17 0
Kukatj (ER 2828) Gugadj 23 7 16 0
Mayi-Kulan (ER 2829) Mayi-Kulan 21 3 18 0
Mayi-Kutuna (ER 2830) Mayaguduna 21 3 18 0
Mayi-Thakurti (ER 2831) Ngawun 22 3 19 0
Mayi-Yapi (ER 2832) Mayi-Yapi 21 3 18 0
Ngawun (ER 2833) Ngawun 21 3 18 0
Wunumara (ER 2834) Ngawun 22 3 19 0
Galaagu (ER 2835) Kalarko 26 6 20 0
Kalaamaya (ER 2836) Kalaamaya 26 6 20 0
Mirrniny (ER 2837) Ngadjunmaya 26 6 20 0
Ngadjunmaya (ER 2838) Ngadjunmaya 26 6 20 0
Kariyarra (ER 2839) Kariyarra 23 3 20 0
Kurrama (ER 2840) Kurrama 27 6 21 0
Martuthunira (ER 2841) Martuthunira 26 6 20 0
Ngarla (ER 2842) Ngarla on the Ashburton river south of the Hamersley range 23 6 17 0
Ngarluma (ER 2843) Ngarluma 23 3 20 0
Nhuwala (ER 2844) Nhuwala 26 6 20 0
Nyamal (ER 2845) Nyamal 23 6 17 0
Nyiyaparli (ER 2846) Nyiyaparli 25 5 20 0
Palyku (ER 2847) Nyiyaparli 26 6 20 0
Panyjima (ER 2848) Panytyima 25 5 20 0
Yindjibarndi (ER 2849) Yindjibarndi 25 6 19 0
Yinhawangka (ER 2850) Yindjibarndi 26 6 20 0
Bilinarra (ER 2851) Bilinarra 23 6 17 0
Wanyjirra (ER 2852) Wanyjirra 21 4 17 0
Gurindji (ER 2853) Gurindji 23 6 17 0
Jaru (ER 2854) Jaru 23 6 17 0
Malngin (ER 2855) Malngin 21 4 17 0
Mudburra (ER 2856) Mudburra 23 6 17 0
Ngardi (ER 2857) Ngardi 24 6 18 0
Ngarinyman (ER 2858) Ngarinman 23 6 17 0
Walmajarri (ER 2859) Walmajarri 23 6 17 0
Warlmanpa (ER 2860) Warlmanpa 28 6 22 0
Warlpiri (ER 2861) Warlpiri 24 6 18 0
Nyawaygi (ER 2862) Nyawaygi 18 6 12 0
Wulguru (ER 2863) Wulguru 21 6 15 0
Balardung (ER 2864) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Bibbulman (ER 2865) Bibbulman 22 5 17 0
Goreng (ER 2866) Goreng 22 5 17 0
Kaniyang (ER 2867) Kaniyang 22 5 17 0
Minang (ER 2868) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Pinjarup (ER 2869) Pinjarup 22 5 17 0
Wardandi (ER 2870) Wardandi 22 5 17 0
Wajuk (ER 2871) Wajuk 22 5 17 0
Wiilman (ER 2872) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Wudjari (ER 2873) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Yuwat (ER 2874) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Bandjigali (ER 2875) Bandjigali 26 6 20 0
Southern Paakintyi (ER 2876) Paakantyi 26 6 20 0
Pallanganmiddang (ER 2877) Pallanganmiddang 25 5 20 0
Ikarranggal (ER 2878) Ikaranggal 23 5 18 0
Takalak (ER 2879) Ikaranggal 27 10 17 0
Aghu Tharnggala (ER 2880) Aghu Tharnggalu 27 7 20 0
Awu Alaya (ER 2881) Thaypan 31 8 23 0
Ogh Awarrangg (ER 2882) Kawarrang-Ogh Undjan 28 5 23 0
Ogh Unyjan (ER 2883) Kawarrang-Ogh Undjan 28 5 23 0
Anguthimri (ER 2884) Anguthimri 36 17 19 0
Gugu Wakura (ER 2885) Kuku-Yalanji 16 3 13 0
Guugu Yimidhirr (ER 2886) Guugu Yimidhirr 23 6 17 0
Kuku Yalanji (ER 2887) Kuku-Yalanji 16 3 13 0
Muluridji (ER 2888) Muluridyi 16 3 13 0
Wagaman (ER 2889) Kuku-Yalanji 16 3 13 0
Djabugay (ER 2890) Dyaabugay 19 6 13 0
Yidiny (ER 2891) Yidiñ 19 6 13 0
Malthanmungu (ER 2892) Barrow Point 25 8 17 0
Djangun (ER 2893) Djangun 16 3 13 0
Lamalama (ER 2894) Lamalama 29 3 26 0
Rimanggudinhma (ER 2895) Rimanggudhinma 29 5 24 0
Wik Mungkan (ER 2896) Wik-Mungkan 26 10 16 0
Wik-Ngathan (ER 2897) Wik-Ngathana 28 12 16 0
Ayapathu (ER 2898) Yintyinka-Ayabadhu 25 10 15 0
Kugu Nganhcara (ER 2899) Wikngenchera 30 10 20 0
Kuugu Ya'u (ER 2900) Kuuku-Ya'u 21 6 15 0
Bakanh (ER 2901) Pakanha 31 10 21 0
Umpila (ER 2902) Umpila 22 6 16 0
Yintyingka (ER 2903) Yintyinka-Ayabadhu 26 10 16 0
Kok Nar (ER 2904) Kok-Nar 25 7 18 0
Kurtjar (ER 2905) Gurdjar 28 9 19 0
Kuthant (ER 2906) Kuthant 25 8 17 0
Walangama (ER 2907) Walangama 28 9 19 0
Alngith (ER 2908) Alngith 28 4 24 0
Aritinngithigh (ER 2909) Aritinngitigh 22 5 17 0
Ndra'ngith (ER 2910) Ndra'ngith 23 4 19 0
Thaynakwithi (ER 2911) Tyanngayt-Mamngayt-Ntrwangayt-Ntrangit 29 10 19 0
Linngithigh (ER 2912) Linngithigh 29 5 24 0
Luthigh (ER 2913) Luthigh 22 4 18 0
Mbiywom (ER 2914) Mbiywom 29 6 23 0
Mpalitjanh (ER 2915) Mpalitjanh 26 4 22 0
Ngkoth (ER 2916) Ngkoth 26 7 19 0
Uradhi (ER 2917) Atampaya 22 4 18 0
Angkamuthi (ER 2918) Angkamuthi 24 6 18 0
Atampaya (ER 2919) Atampaya 26 8 18 0
Yadhaykenu (ER 2920) Yadhaykenu 26 8 18 0
Yinwum (ER 2921) Yinwum 27 4 23 0
Koko Bera (ER 2922) Gugubera 21 6 15 0
Thaayorre (ER 2923) Thayore 26 10 16 0
Olkol (ER 2924) Ulkulu 28 5 23 0
Yir Yoront (ER 2925) Yir-Yoront 26 6 20 0
Agwamin (ER 2926) Wamin 21 6 15 0
Mbara (ER 2927) Mbara-Yanga 27 10 17 0
Mbabaram (ER 2928) Mbabaram 27 12 15 0
Umbuygamu (ER 2929) Umbuygamu 32 5 27 0
Oykangand (ER 2930) Oykangand 28 5 23 0
Adnyamathanha (ER 2931) Adnyamathanha 27 3 24 0
Kaurna (ER 2932) Kaurna 25 5 20 0
Nukunu (ER 2933) Nugunu (Australia) 28 6 22 0
Wirangu (ER 2934) Wirangu-Nauo 23 4 19 0
Parnkalla (ER 2935) Banggarla 23 3 20 0
Narrungga (ER 2936) Narungga 27 6 21 0
Kukata (ER 2937) Kokata 23 6 17 0
Gureng-gureng (ER 2938) Gureng Gureng 23 10 13 0
Guweng (ER 2939) Gureng Gureng 23 10 13 0
Butchulla (ER 2940) Kabikabi 24 8 16 0
Gabi-Gabi (ER 2941) Gabigabi 19 6 13 0
Barunggam (ER 2942) Kabikabi 23 10 13 0
Duungidjawu (ER 2943) Duungidjawu 23 10 13 0
Waka Waka (ER 2944) Wakawaka 23 10 13 0
Wuli Wuli (ER 2945) Wuliwuli 23 10 13 0
Bularnu (ER 2946) Bularnu 32 6 26 0
Eastern Wakaya (ER 2947) Wagaya 25 6 19 0
Warluwarra (ER 2948) Warluwara 33 4 29 0
Western Wakaya (ER 2949) Wagaya 26 6 20 0
Yanyuwa (ER 2950) Yanyuwa 24 4 20 0
Warumungu (ER 2951) Warumungu 28 6 22 0
Kartujarra (ER 2952) Kartujarra 24 7 17 0
Manjiljarra (ER 2953) Manyjilyjara 23 6 17 0
Putijarra (ER 2954) Puditara 23 3 20 0
Wangkajunga (ER 2955) Wangkajunga 23 6 17 0
Yulparija (ER 2956) Yulparija 23 6 17 0
Warnman (ER 2957) Wanman 23 6 17 0
Antakirinya (ER 2958) Antakarinya 23 6 17 0
Kukatja (ER 2959) Kukatja 23 6 17 0
Ngalia (ER 2960) Pitjantjatjara 23 6 17 0
Ngarlawangka (ER 2961) Ngarla 23 6 17 0
Ngaanyatjarra (ER 2962) Ngaanyatjarra 23 6 17 0
Pintupi (ER 2963) Pintupi-Luritja 23 6 17 0
Pitjantjatjara (ER 2964) Pitjantjatjara 23 6 17 0
Yankunytjatjara (ER 2965) Yankunytjatjara 23 6 17 0
Kala Kawaw Ya (ER 2966) Kalaw Kawaw 24 6 18 0
Kala Lagaw Ya (ER 2967) Kala Lagaw Ya 24 6 18 0
Malyangapa (ER 2968) Malyangapa 27 6 21 0
Wadikali (ER 2969) Wadikali 27 6 21 0
Yardliyawarra (ER 2970) Yardliyawarra 27 6 21 0
Dhangu (ER 2971) Dhangu 26 6 20 0
Gupapuyngu (ER 2972) Gupapuyngu 31 6 25 0
Dhay'yi (ER 2973) Dhalwangu 26 6 20 0
Djambarrpuyngu (ER 2974) Djambarrpuyngu 31 6 25 0
Gumatj (ER 2975) Gumatj 31 6 25 0
Djinang (ER 2976) Djinang 25 3 22 0
Djinba (ER 2977) Djinba 25 3 22 0
Nhangu (ER 2978) Yan-nhangu 31 6 25 0
Ritharrngu (ER 2979) Ritarungo 31 6 25 0
Yabula-Yabula (ER 2980) Yorta Yorta 20 5 15 0
Yorta Yorta (ER 2981) Yorta Yorta 19 5 14 0
Bigambal (ER 2982) Bigambal 16 3 13 0
Yugambal (ER 2983) Yugambal 16 3 13 0
Darkinyung (ER 2984) Hawkesbury 18 3 15 0
Dharuk (ER 2985) Sydney 19 3 16 0
Eora (ER 2986) Sydney 19 3 16 0
Awabakal (ER 2987) Awabakal 16 3 13 0
West Djadjawurung (ER 2988) Western Victoria 21 4 17 0
Katthang (ER 2989) Worimi 19 6 13 0
Nganyaywana (ER 2990) Nganyaywana 17 3 14 0
Thanggati (ER 2991) Dyangadi 19 6 13 0
Djapu (ER 2992) Djapu 25 6 19 0
Dharawal (ER 2993) Thurawal 25 6 19 0
Dharumba (ER 2994) Thurawal 25 6 19 0
Dhurga (ER 2995) Dhurga 25 6 19 0
Djirringany (ER 2996) Southern Coastal Yuin 25 6 19 0
Gundungurra (ER 2997) Gundungurra 25 6 19 0
Ngarigu (ER 2998) Ngarigu 18 3 15 0
Ngunawal (ER 2999) Southern Inland Yuin 25 6 19 0
Thawa (ER 3000) Southern Coastal Yuin 25 6 19 0
Gangalidda (ER 3001) Ganggalida 24 6 18 0
Kayardild (ER 3002) Kayardild 23 6 17 0
Lardil (ER 3003) Lardil 25 8 17 0
Yangkaralda (ER 3004) Kayardild 24 6 18 0
Tiwi (ER 3005) Tiwi 22 4 18 0
Wagiman (ER 3006) Wageman 27 5 22 0
Ngarinyin (ER 3007) Ngarinyin 22 5 17 0
Gambera (ER 3008) Gambera 25 5 20 0
Kwini (ER 3009) Kwini 28 11 17 0
Wunambal (ER 3010) Wunambal 28 11 17 0
Umiida (ER 3011) Umiida 25 5 20 0
Unggumi (ER 3012) Unggumi 24 5 19 0
Worrorra (ER 3013) Worrorra 25 8 17 0
Yawijibaya (ER 3014) Yawijibaya 25 5 20 0
Wardaman (ER 3015) Wardaman 22 5 17 0
Yangman (ER 3016) Yangman 22 5 17 0
Guwamu (ER 3017) Guwamu 21 6 15 0
Ngardily (ER 3018) Western Warlpiri 24 6 18 0
Piangil (ER 3019) Wergaia 21 4 17 0
Tableland Lamalama (ER 3020) Lamalama 29 3 26 0

The ER source data comes from Erich Round and should be cited as:

Round, Erich R. 2019. Phonemic inventories of Australia.

Notes on the inventories and their compilation from Erich are below. The data are available in phoible long format in ER_inventories.tsv and contain only phonemes, with no information on allophones or linguistic tone.

OVERVIEW

Phonemic analysis is a valuable prelude to cross-linguistic comparison. Nevertheless, phonemicization is not a deterministic process and linguistic practice is not uniform. This has certain consequences for the compilation and use of cross-linguistic summary datasets such as this one. The following notes are arranged by topic and highlight how these issues have been accommodated in the compilation of the Australian dataset.

LABELS

The labeling of phonemes acts to group phonemes, implicitly or explicitly, into classes (e.g. ‘the stops’), yet phonemes may class together differently with respect to allophony vs phonological alternations vs phonotactics and even vs their history. Consequently, analysts are often forced to choose between multiple conceivable classifications, each of which captures only some of the facts. When they do so, one analyst’s criteria may differ from those of another. As a result, some cross-doculectal variation in phoneme labels may reflect more a variation among analysts’ necessary choices between multiple, defensible options, than empirical differences among languages. Where this appears to be the case, I have in some instances relabelled phonemes relative to source documents, to promote cross-linguistic comparability. For example, stops in languages with no contrast for voicing or fortition are labelled here with plain, voiceless IPA symbols, following widespread phonological practice. More cases are noted below.

SEGMENTATION

The task of dividing words into segments can itself present challenges, since in this task phonemic analysis becomes interdependent with the analysis of phonotactics. The phonotactics of Australian languages are highly constrained (Hamilton 1996), and this has enabled researchers to converge on broadly similar criteria for segmentation, enhancing the comparability of cross-linguistic data. However, in cases where languages contain unusual phonotactic sequences at the phonetic level, the analytical response in terms of segmentation and phonemicization has been more varied. By comparing across sources, it is possible to discern certain recurrent patterns of analytic practice. The next set of topics records attempts to accommodate these issues in the Australian dataset. The aim has been to bring to the fore empirical variation, over the variability among analytic choices.

COMPLEX SEGMENTS

Some sources analyse a phonotactically unusual phonetic sequence [X+Y], particularly ones which descend historically from [X] or [Y], as a complex phonemic segment /XY/; others analyse it as a phonemic sequence /X/+/Y/. However, no complex segment /XY/ posited for an Australian language is contrastive with /X/+/Y/, at least under some, reasonable set of assumptions about the rest of the inventory. Consequently, for the purposes of enhanced cross-linguistic comparability, all such sequences are treated in the dataset as two-segment phonemic sequences, /X/+/Y/. Notes on specific types: (1) A minority of Australian languages permit phonetic stop+nasal or stop+lateral sequences only at homorganic places of articulation. In original sources these are analysed as sequences (e.g. Sommer 1969 on Kunjen) or single complex segments (e.g. Breen 1981 on Arandic languages). (2) Almost all Australian languages permit phonetic nasal+stop sequences at homorganic places of articulation, but word-initially they are rare. In original sources they are analysed as sequences (e.g. Dixon 1991 on Mbabaram) or single complex segments (e.g. Crowley 1981 on Mpakwithi). (3) Few Australian languages permit phonetic stop+liquid sequences. The sequence [tr] in particular is sometimes analysed in original sources as a single complex segment (e.g. Hale 1997 on Linngithigh). (4) In Australian languages [w] often colors neighboring vowels; furthermore, most Australian languages permit [C+w] phonetic sequences, and these may be temporally coarticulated (e.g. Round 2009:65 on Kayardild). In some languages, these facts are analysed with phonemic /C/+/w/ sequences (e.g. Round 2009), but occasionally with complex, labialized consonants (Dixon 1991 on Mbabaram). (5) Harvey (2011) presents arguments for analysing ‘pre-palatalized’ complex segments in Arandic languages as /j/+/C/.

CORONAL PLACES OF ARTICULATION

All Australian languages contrast either one or two ‘apical’ places of articulation, where the primary constriction is formed with the tongue tip; and either one or two ‘laminal’ places of articulation, with constriction formed by the tongue blade. In this dataset, laminals are labelled either as dental (with the IPA bridge diacritic) or pre-palatal (with IPA curl). Apicals are plain /t/, /n/ etc. for apical alveolars, IPA retroflex for retroflexes, and for languages with no alveolar–retroflex contrast, the single apical place is explicitly labelled as apical (with the IPA inverted bridge diacritic).

STOP SERIES

Some Australian languages contrast two series of stops, typically matched at all superlaryngeal places of articulation, and sources may phonemicize them in a number of ways. For the purposes of enhanced cross-linguistic comparability, this dataset follows Butcher (2004, 2012) and phonemicizes them as fortis and lenis, with no voicing contrast.

TAPS, FLAPS AND LENIS APICAL STOPS

Some Australian languages have an extra, voiced lenis, stop-like or tap/flap-like phoneme solely at the apical place(s) of articulation. Sources may phonemicize these as voiced/lenis stops or as taps/flaps (see Breen 1997 for discussion). For cross-linguistic comparability, they are phonemicized here as tap/flaps.

editor's note: The retroflex lateral flap that was originally represented as ɺ̢ (027A+0322, the alveolar lateral flap + retroflex hook) in Dr. Round's data has been changed by the PHOIBLE editors to be represented as ɺ̠̺ (027A+0320+033A, the alveolar lateral flap with retraction and apical diacritics).

VOWEL LENGTH

Most sources phonemicize long vowels as a single long vowel segment. Some phonemicize them as two, adjacent short vowels (e.g. McDonald & Wurm 1979:5 for Wangkumara [a:]). The phonemicization here is as the single, long segment.

GLOTTAL STOP

Some sources analyse the unpredictable presence/absence of a glottal stop as a prosodic feature (e.g. Waters 1980 for Djinang) and others as a phonemic segment. The representation here is as a phonemic segment.