Contributor ER: Erich Round

Comparative analysis of Australian phoneme inventories by Erich Round. Certain

Inventory Language Segments Vowels Consonants Tones
Bidhawal (ER 2788) Birrdhawal 25 8 17 0
Olkol (ER 2924) Ulkulu 28 5 23 0
Mirrniny (ER 2837) Ngadjunmaya 26 6 20 0
Mengerrdji (ER 2649) Mangerr 23 5 18 0
Wangkayutyuru (ER 2764) Wanggamala 26 5 21 0
Jabirr-Jabirr (ER 2699) Dyaberdyaber 20 3 17 0
Umbuygamu (ER 2929) Umbuygamu 32 5 27 0
Western Arrernte (ER 2710) Western Arrarnta 44 4 40 0
Katthang (ER 2989) Worimi 19 6 13 0
Kalkatungu (ER 2739) Kalkutung 26 6 20 0
Dhudhuroa (ER 2727) Dhudhuroa 21 6 15 0
Gunya (ER 2816) Gunya 31 6 25 0
Djambarrpuyngu (ER 2974) Djambarrpuyngu 31 6 25 0
Mawng (ER 2669) Mawng 22 5 17 0
Kungardutji (ER 2759) Wangkumara 30 4 26 0
Thangguai (ER 2790) Ganai 22 5 17 0
Pallanganmiddang (ER 2877) Pallanganmiddang 25 5 20 0
Warrwa (ER 2694) Warrwa 20 3 17 0
Kukatj (ER 2828) Gugadj 23 7 16 0
Malyangapa (ER 2968) Malyangapa 27 6 21 0
Gundungurra (ER 2997) Gundungurra 25 6 19 0
Guwar (ER 2714) Guwar 19 6 13 0
Mbara (ER 2927) Mbara-Yanga 27 10 17 0
Guweng (ER 2939) Gureng Gureng 23 10 13 0
Lower Southern Aranda (ER 2709) Lower Southern Aranda 44 4 40 0
Keramin (ER 2792) Keramin 23 3 20 0
Garlali (ER 2767) Kalali 21 3 18 0
Diyari (ER 2749) Dieri 25 3 22 0
Murrinh-patha (ER 2634) Murrinhpatha 28 4 24 0
Karajarri (ER 2825) Karadjeri 21 4 17 0
Awu Alaya (ER 2881) Thaypan 31 8 23 0
Kuku Yalanji (ER 2887) Kuku-Yalanji 16 3 13 0
Pintupi (ER 2963) Pintupi-Luritja 23 6 17 0
Warlmanpa (ER 2860) Warlmanpa 28 6 22 0
Rimanggudinhma (ER 2895) Rimanggudhinma 29 5 24 0
Djapu (ER 2992) Djapu 25 6 19 0
Bigambal (ER 2982) Bigambal 16 3 13 0
Yetimarala (ER 2809) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Nyiyaparli (ER 2846) Nyiyaparli 25 5 20 0
Wirangu (ER 2934) Wirangu-Nauo 23 4 19 0
Bularnu (ER 2946) Bularnu 32 6 26 0
Gambera (ER 3008) Gambera 25 5 20 0
Ngiyambaa (ER 2721) Ngiyambaa 21 6 15 0
Wagiman (ER 3006) Wageman 27 5 22 0
Nhangu (ER 2978) Yan-nhangu 31 6 25 0
Wathawurrung (ER 2776) Wathawurrung 23 3 20 0
Southern Paakintyi (ER 2876) Paakantyi 26 6 20 0
Anguthimri (ER 2884) Anguthimri 36 17 19 0
Gugu Badhun (ER 2819) Gugu Badhun 17 3 14 0
Aritinngithigh (ER 2909) Aritinngitigh 22 5 17 0
Umbugarla (ER 2644) Umbugarla 25 8 17 0
Eastern Arrernte (ER 2708) Eastern Arrernte 44 4 40 0
Warluwarra (ER 2948) Warluwara 33 4 29 0
Antekerrepenhe (ER 2705) Andegerebinha 44 4 40 0
Yawarrawarrka (ER 2756) Yawarawarga 30 4 26 0
Jiwarli (ER 2744) Djiwarli 26 6 20 0
Wagaman (ER 2889) Kuku-Yalanji 16 3 13 0
Dharawal (ER 2993) Thurawal 25 6 19 0
Yangga (ER 2808) Biri 18 3 15 0
Djirringany (ER 2996) Southern Coastal Yuin 25 6 19 0
Kwini (ER 3009) Kwini 28 11 17 0
Urningangg (ER 2650) Urningangg 23 5 18 0
Western Anmatyerre (ER 2704) Western Anmatyerre 44 4 40 0
Uradhi (ER 2917) Atampaya 22 4 18 0
Gugu Wakura (ER 2885) Kuku-Yalanji 16 3 13 0
Wangkajunga (ER 2955) Wangkajunga 23 6 17 0
Dalabon (ER 2652) Ngalkbun 29 6 23 0
Woiwurrung (ER 2777) Woiwurrung 23 3 20 0
Luthigh (ER 2913) Luthigh 22 4 18 0
Guwamu (ER 3017) Guwamu 21 6 15 0
Gun-Djeihmi (ER 2657) Kundjeyhmi 27 5 22 0
Walmajarri (ER 2859) Walmajarri 23 6 17 0
Bandjigali (ER 2875) Bandjigali 26 6 20 0
Wurrugu (ER 2668) Wurrugu 23 3 20 0
Yabula-Yabula (ER 2980) Yorta Yorta 20 5 15 0
Gangalidda (ER 3001) Ganggalida 24 6 18 0
Gamilaraay (ER 2719) Yuwaalaraay-Gamilaraay 21 6 15 0
Yuwaalaraay (ER 2725) Yuwaalaraay 21 6 15 0
Darkinyung (ER 2984) Hawkesbury 18 3 15 0
Minjungbal (ER 2715) Minjangbal 20 8 12 0
Ngkoth (ER 2916) Ngkoth 26 7 19 0
Malak-Malak (ER 2633) Mullukmulluk 19 5 14 0
Yadhaykenu (ER 2920) Yadhaykenu 26 8 18 0
Tharrkari (ER 2745) Dhargari 31 6 25 0
Guugu Yimidhirr (ER 2886) Guugu Yimidhirr 23 6 17 0
Pitta Pitta (ER 2763) Pitta Pitta 26 5 21 0
Kungkari (ER 2765) Kuungkari of Barcoo River 25 6 19 0
Ngarinyin (ER 3007) Ngarinyin 22 5 17 0
Angkamuthi (ER 2918) Angkamuthi 24 6 18 0
Yanda (ER 2738) Yanda 24 3 21 0
Mangarrayi (ER 2682) Mangarrayi 22 5 17 0
Gabi-Gabi (ER 2941) Gabigabi 19 6 13 0
Ngarluma (ER 2843) Ngarluma 23 3 20 0
Yinhawangka (ER 2850) Yindjibarndi 26 6 20 0
Worrorra (ER 3013) Worrorra 25 8 17 0
Burarra (ER 2629) Burarra 26 5 21 0
Margany (ER 2817) Margany 31 6 25 0
Wuli Wuli (ER 2945) Wuliwuli 23 10 13 0
Kuninjku (ER 2659) Kuninjku 27 5 22 0
Garingbal (ER 2804) Biri 18 3 15 0
Boonwurrung (ER 2775) Woiwurrung 23 3 20 0
Ayapathu (ER 2898) Yintyinka-Ayabadhu 25 10 15 0
Dharumbal (ER 2813) Dharumbal 21 3 18 0
Wik Mungkan (ER 2896) Wik-Mungkan 26 10 16 0
Bilinarra (ER 2851) Bilinarra 23 6 17 0
Wiri (ER 2806) Biri 18 3 15 0
Tiwi (ER 3005) Tiwi 22 4 18 0
Yankunytjatjara (ER 2965) Yankunytjatjara 23 6 17 0
Ilgar (ER 2671) Ilgar 24 3 21 0
Alyawarr (ER 2702) Alyawarr 43 3 40 0
Garrwa (ER 2645) Garrwa 17 3 14 0
Yaraldi (ER 2795) Narrinyeri 25 5 20 0
Kija (ER 2674) Kitja 24 5 19 0
Jaru (ER 2854) Jaru 23 6 17 0
Muluridji (ER 2888) Muluridyi 16 3 13 0
Yandruwandha (ER 2754) Yandruwandha 30 4 26 0
Wambaya (ER 2690) Wambayan 23 6 17 0
Ngandi (ER 2655) Ngandi 35 9 26 0
Yardliyawarra (ER 2970) Yardliyawarra 27 6 21 0
Mbabaram (ER 2928) Mbabaram 27 12 15 0
Nyikina (ER 2693) Nyigina 20 3 17 0
Marramaninyshi (ER 2637) Marimanindji 20 4 16 0
Wemba Wemba (ER 2786) Wemba Wemba 22 6 16 0
Jardwadjali (ER 2783) Djadjawurrungic 21 4 17 0
Kalaamaya (ER 2836) Kalaamaya 26 6 20 0
Nganyaywana (ER 2990) Nganyaywana 17 3 14 0
Kunwinjku (ER 2660) Kunwinjku 27 5 22 0
Kune (ER 2658) Kune 28 6 22 0
Nyulnyul (ER 2701) Nyulnyul 20 3 17 0
Koko Bera (ER 2922) Gugubera 21 6 15 0
Yuwi (ER 2811) Biri 18 3 15 0
Wanyjirra (ER 2852) Wanyjirra 21 4 17 0
Goreng (ER 2866) Goreng 22 5 17 0
Anindilyakwa (ER 2651) Anindilyakwa 26 4 22 0
Bardi (ER 2697) Bardi 24 7 17 0
Wayilwan (ER 2722) Wayilwan 21 6 15 0
Kaurna (ER 2932) Kaurna 25 5 20 0
Dharawala (ER 2812) Bidyara 17 3 14 0
Daungwurrung (ER 2774) Daungwurrung 23 3 20 0
Nakara (ER 2678) Nakara 25 5 20 0
Miyan (ER 2805) Biri 18 3 15 0
Minkin (ER 2691) Minkin 23 3 20 0
Ngalakgan (ER 2654) Ngalakgan 27 5 22 0
Kuugu Ya'u (ER 2900) Kuuku-Ya'u 21 6 15 0
Kukata (ER 2937) Kokata 23 6 17 0
Gungabula (ER 2814) Gungabula 20 4 16 0
Emmi (ER 2641) Ami 32 5 27 0
Duungidjawu (ER 2943) Duungidjawu 23 10 13 0
Kala Kawaw Ya (ER 2966) Kalaw Kawaw 24 6 18 0
Kugu Nganhcara (ER 2899) Wikngenchera 30 10 20 0
Warnman (ER 2957) Wanman 23 6 17 0
Ngaanyatjarra (ER 2962) Ngaanyatjarra 23 6 17 0
Yintyingka (ER 2903) Yintyinka-Ayabadhu 26 10 16 0
Yawuru (ER 2696) Yawuru 28 6 22 0
Purduna (ER 2742) Burduna 26 6 20 0
Marti Ke (ER 2640) Marti Ke 31 4 27 0
Ogh Unyjan (ER 2883) Kawarrang-Ogh Undjan 28 5 23 0
Kaniyang (ER 2867) Kaniyang 22 5 17 0
Yuwaliyaay (ER 2726) Yuwaalayaay 21 6 15 0
Thaynakwithi (ER 2911) Tyanngayt-Mamngayt-Ntrwangayt-Ntrangit 29 10 19 0
Iwaidja (ER 2672) Iwaidja 23 3 20 0
Manjiljarra (ER 2953) Manyjilyjara 23 6 17 0
Mayi-Yapi (ER 2832) Mayi-Yapi 21 3 18 0
Wubuy (ER 2665) Wubuy 25 6 19 0
Atampaya (ER 2919) Atampaya 26 8 18 0
Mpalitjanh (ER 2915) Mpalitjanh 26 4 22 0
Dhurga (ER 2995) Dhurga 25 6 19 0
Martuthunira (ER 2841) Martuthunira 26 6 20 0
Panyjima (ER 2848) Panytyima 25 5 20 0
Nyangumarta (ER 2827) Nyangumarta 21 4 17 0
Wulguru (ER 2863) Wulguru 21 6 15 0
Djinang (ER 2976) Djinang 25 3 22 0
Gureng-gureng (ER 2938) Gureng Gureng 23 10 13 0
Nhanda (ER 2770) Nhanda 33 6 27 0
Kayardild (ER 3002) Kayardild 23 6 17 0
Mayi-Kulan (ER 2829) Mayi-Kulan 21 3 18 0
Larrakia (ER 2642) Laragia 24 6 18 0
Gupapuyngu (ER 2972) Gupapuyngu 31 6 25 0
Nimanburu (ER 2698) Nimanbur 23 6 17 0
Jaminjung (ER 2683) Jaminjung-Ngaliwurru 22 4 18 0
Wik-Ngathan (ER 2897) Wik-Ngathana 28 12 16 0
Garig (ER 2670) Garig 24 3 21 0
Kunindirri (ER 2647) Garrwa 17 3 14 0
Warndarrang (ER 2680) Wandarang 20 3 17 0
Antakirinya (ER 2958) Antakarinya 23 6 17 0
Djabwurung (ER 2785) Djabwurrung 21 4 17 0
Jingulu (ER 2687) Jingulu 20 3 17 0
Putijarra (ER 2954) Puditara 23 3 20 0
Piangil (ER 3019) Wergaia 21 4 17 0
Yari-Yari (ER 2778) Yari-Yari 23 3 20 0
Ngawun (ER 2833) Ngawun 21 3 18 0
Yuwat (ER 2874) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Mithaka (ER 2748) Mithaka 29 3 26 0
Agwamin (ER 2926) Wamin 21 6 15 0
Mayi-Kutuna (ER 2830) Mayaguduna 21 3 18 0
Pitjantjatjara (ER 2964) Pitjantjatjara 23 6 17 0
Djabugay (ER 2890) Dyaabugay 19 6 13 0
Yindjibarndi (ER 2849) Yindjibarndi 25 6 19 0
Kartujarra (ER 2952) Kartujarra 24 7 17 0
Kolakngat (ER 2773) Colac 22 5 17 0
Wathi Wathi (ER 2781) Wadi Wadi 21 4 17 0
Marra (ER 2679) Marra 23 4 19 0
Yugambal (ER 2983) Yugambal 16 3 13 0
Wiradjuri (ER 2723) Wiradhuri 21 6 15 0
Kuthant (ER 2906) Kuthant 25 8 17 0
Nungali (ER 2685) Nungali 17 3 14 0
Gunggari (ER 2815) Kunggari 18 3 15 0
Yanyuwa (ER 2950) Yanyuwa 24 4 20 0
Kungarakany (ER 2675) Kungarakany 22 5 17 0
Unggumi (ER 3012) Unggumi 24 5 19 0
Bibbulman (ER 2865) Bibbulman 22 5 17 0
Jawi (ER 2700) Djawi 20 3 17 0
Badimaya (ER 2768) Badimaya 23 3 20 0
Nhuwala (ER 2844) Nhuwala 26 6 20 0
Dyirbal (ER 2732) Dyirbal 16 3 13 0
Minang (ER 2868) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Oykangand (ER 2930) Oykangand 28 5 23 0
Watjarri (ER 2771) Wajarri 26 6 20 0
Gurr-Goni (ER 2677) Guragone 27 5 22 0
Gudjal (ER 2818) Gudjal 18 3 15 0
Bidyara (ER 2797) Bidyara 20 4 16 0
Yinwum (ER 2921) Yinwum 27 4 23 0
Nyamal (ER 2845) Nyamal 23 6 17 0
Lamalama (ER 2894) Lamalama 29 3 26 0
Muruwari (ER 2720) Muruwari 25 6 19 0
Yaygir (ER 2736) Yaygir 20 6 14 0
Mudburra (ER 2856) Mudburra 23 6 17 0
Kok Nar (ER 2904) Kok-Nar 25 7 18 0
Ngardi (ER 2857) Ngardi 24 6 18 0
Eastern Anmatyerre (ER 2703) Eastern Anmatyerre 44 4 40 0
Matngele (ER 2632) Madngele 22 5 17 0
Nulit (ER 2791) Ganai 22 5 17 0
Marringarr (ER 2638) Maringarr 32 4 28 0
Pirriya (ER 2766) Pirriya 24 5 19 0
Thaayorre (ER 2923) Thayore 26 10 16 0
Warrnambool (ER 2718) Warrnambool 26 6 20 0
Miriwoong (ER 2673) Miriwung 20 4 16 0
Djangun (ER 2893) Djangun 16 3 13 0
Pirlatapa (ER 2753) Pirlatapa 25 3 22 0
Bakanh (ER 2901) Pakanha 31 10 21 0
Galaagu (ER 2835) Kalarko 26 6 20 0
Baanbay (ER 2734) Kumbainggar 19 6 13 0
Erre (ER 2648) Erre 23 5 18 0
Wadjabangay (ER 2821) Bidyara 18 3 15 0
Kala Lagaw Ya (ER 2967) Kala Lagaw Ya 24 6 18 0
Wardandi (ER 2870) Wardandi 22 5 17 0
Yitha Yitha (ER 2796) Yitha Yitha 23 3 20 0
Marrithiyel (ER 2639) Marithiel 24 4 20 0
Wotjobaluk (ER 2787) Wotjobaluk 19 4 15 0
Thiin (ER 2746) Thiin 26 6 20 0
Gurindji (ER 2853) Gurindji 23 6 17 0
Wadikali (ER 2969) Wadikali 27 6 21 0
Punthamara (ER 2758) Punthamara 21 3 18 0
Ayerrerenge (ER 2707) Ayerrerenge 43 4 39 0
Warumungu (ER 2951) Warumungu 28 6 22 0
Ngardily (ER 3018) Western Warlpiri 24 6 18 0
Dhangu (ER 2971) Dhangu 26 6 20 0
Arabana (ER 2761) Arabana 24 3 21 0
Patjtjamalh (ER 2636) Wadjiginy 22 5 17 0
Thirarri (ER 2750) Dirari 25 3 22 0
Gidabal (ER 2713) Gidabal 21 8 13 0
Alngith (ER 2908) Alngith 28 4 24 0
Waanyi (ER 2646) Wanyi 20 6 14 0
Ngarigu (ER 2998) Ngarigu 18 3 15 0
East Djadjawurung (ER 2782) Western Victoria 21 4 17 0
Mbiywom (ER 2914) Mbiywom 29 6 23 0
Alawa (ER 2681) Alawa 26 4 22 0
Dharumba (ER 2994) Thurawal 25 6 19 0
Awabakal (ER 2987) Awabakal 16 3 13 0
Wangkumara (ER 2760) Wangkumara 30 4 26 0
Western Wakaya (ER 2949) Wagaya 26 6 20 0
Ngarlawangka (ER 2961) Ngarla 23 6 17 0
Eastern Wakaya (ER 2947) Wagaya 25 6 19 0
Gooniyandi (ER 2631) Gooniyandi 23 4 19 0
Yiningay (ER 2824) Bidyara 19 3 16 0
Jukun (ER 2695) Dyugun 28 6 22 0
Gumatj (ER 2975) Gumatj 31 6 25 0
Umpila (ER 2902) Umpila 22 6 16 0
Warriyangga (ER 2747) Wariyangga 26 6 20 0
Tableland Lamalama (ER 3020) Lamalama 29 3 26 0
Malngin (ER 2855) Malngin 21 4 17 0
Balardung (ER 2864) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Muk-Thang (ER 2789) Ganai 22 5 17 0
Nari Nari (ER 2784) Nari Nari 23 5 18 0
Butchulla (ER 2940) Kabikabi 24 8 16 0
West Djadjawurung (ER 2988) Western Victoria 21 4 17 0
Gun-Dedjnjenghmi (ER 2656) Kundjeyhmi 27 5 22 0
Eora (ER 2986) Sydney 19 3 16 0
Mayali (ER 2661) Manyallaluk Mayali 27 5 22 0
Yalarnnga (ER 2740) Yalarnnga 24 4 20 0
Thanggati (ER 2991) Dyangadi 19 6 13 0
Ngalia (ER 2960) Pitjantjatjara 23 6 17 0
Dhay'yi (ER 2973) Dhalwangu 26 6 20 0
Nyawaygi (ER 2862) Nyawaygi 18 6 12 0
Marrgu (ER 2667) Margu 26 3 23 0
Ngumbarl (ER 2692) Ngumbarl 20 3 17 0
Nhirrpi (ER 2755) Nhirrpi 29 3 26 0
Gabalbara (ER 2801) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Adnyamathanha (ER 2931) Adnyamathanha 27 3 24 0
Ndjebbana (ER 2676) Djeebbana 21 5 16 0
Wiilman (ER 2872) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Wudjari (ER 2873) Nyunga 22 5 17 0
Ganulu (ER 2803) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Buwandik (ER 2717) Bunganditj 23 3 20 0
Yorta Yorta (ER 2981) Yorta Yorta 19 5 14 0
Lardil (ER 3003) Lardil 25 8 17 0
Yilba (ER 2810) Biri 18 3 15 0
Kariyarra (ER 2839) Kariyarra 23 3 20 0
Kukatja (ER 2959) Kukatja 23 6 17 0
Umiida (ER 3011) Umiida 25 5 20 0
Pinjarup (ER 2869) Pinjarup 22 5 17 0
Yawijibaya (ER 3014) Yawijibaya 25 5 20 0
Binbinka (ER 2688) Binbinka 23 6 17 0
Thawa (ER 3000) Southern Coastal Yuin 25 6 19 0
Yandjibara (ER 2823) Bidyara 21 3 18 0
Yidiny (ER 2891) Yidiñ 19 6 13 0
Yambina (ER 2807) Biri 18 3 15 0
Walangama (ER 2907) Walangama 28 9 19 0
Ngunawal (ER 2999) Southern Inland Yuin 25 6 19 0
Central Arrernte (ER 2706) Mparntwe Arrernte 44 4 40 0
Narrungga (ER 2936) Narungga 27 6 21 0
Djinba (ER 2977) Djinba 25 3 22 0
Wangkangurru (ER 2762) Wangganguru 24 3 21 0
Nukunu (ER 2933) Nugunu (Australia) 28 6 22 0
Limilngan (ER 2643) Limilngan 25 3 22 0
Ritharrngu (ER 2979) Ritarungo 31 6 25 0
Palyku (ER 2847) Nyiyaparli 26 6 20 0
Payungu (ER 2741) Bayungu 26 6 20 0
Bunuba (ER 2630) Bunaba 24 4 20 0
Yir Yoront (ER 2925) Yir-Yoront 26 6 20 0
Barunggam (ER 2942) Kabikabi 23 10 13 0
Warlpiri (ER 2861) Warlpiri 24 6 18 0
Mangala (ER 2826) Mangala 24 7 17 0
Biri (ER 2800) Biri 18 3 15 0
Gaagudju (ER 2653) Gaagudju 27 10 17 0
Wajuk (ER 2871) Wajuk 22 5 17 0
Waalubal (ER 2716) Waalubal 20 8 12 0
Takalak (ER 2879) Ikaranggal 27 10 17 0
Ngadjunmaya (ER 2838) Ngadjunmaya 26 6 20 0
Kurrama (ER 2840) Kurrama 27 6 21 0
Ladji-Ladji (ER 2779) Ladji Ladji 21 4 17 0
Yingkarta (ER 2772) Yinggarda 26 6 20 0
Gangulu (ER 2802) Gangulu 22 6 16 0
Ngarnka (ER 2686) Ngarnka 21 4 17 0
Ngarinyman (ER 2858) Ngarinman 23 6 17 0
Ndra'ngith (ER 2910) Ndra'ngith 23 4 19 0
Gudanji (ER 2689) Gudanji 19 3 16 0
Thalanyji (ER 2743) Dhalandji 26 6 20 0
Ikarranggal (ER 2878) Ikaranggal 23 5 18 0
Wunambal (ER 3010) Wunambal 28 11 17 0
Malthanmungu (ER 2892) Barrow Point 25 8 17 0
Dharuk (ER 2985) Sydney 19 3 16 0
Ngayawang (ER 2793) Lower Riverland 23 3 20 0
Madhi-Madhi (ER 2780) Madhi Madhi 20 4 16 0
Kurtjar (ER 2905) Gurdjar 28 9 19 0
Guwa (ER 2737) Guwa 23 3 20 0
Yangman (ER 3016) Yangman 22 5 17 0
Wardaman (ER 3015) Wardaman 22 5 17 0
Ngintait (ER 2794) Ngindadj 23 3 20 0
Mayi-Thakurti (ER 2831) Ngawun 22 3 19 0
Yarluyandi (ER 2757) Dieri 24 3 21 0
Rembarrnga (ER 2663) Rembarrnga 28 6 22 0
Turubul (ER 2730) Yagara 19 6 13 0
Djindewal (ER 2729) djindewal 19 6 13 0
Malkana (ER 2769) Malgana 26 6 20 0
Ngarla (ER 2842) Ngarla on the Ashburton river south of the Hamersley range 23 6 17 0
Ogh Awarrangg (ER 2882) Kawarrang-Ogh Undjan 28 5 23 0
Jawoyn (ER 2662) Jawoyn 27 5 22 0
Wangan (ER 2822) Biri 18 3 15 0
Wunumara (ER 2834) Ngawun 22 3 19 0
Gumbaynggir (ER 2735) Kumbainggar 19 6 13 0
Warungu (ER 2820) Warrongo 17 4 13 0
Jandai (ER 2728) Jandai 19 6 13 0
Karangura (ER 2751) Karangura 25 3 22 0
Warrgamay (ER 2733) Warrgamay 19 6 13 0
Kaytetye (ER 2711) Kaytetye 43 3 40 0
Wiriyaraay (ER 2724) Wirriyaraay 21 6 15 0
Aghu Tharnggala (ER 2880) Aghu Tharnggalu 27 7 20 0
Barna (ER 2799) Biri 18 3 15 0
Ngamini (ER 2752) Ngamini 25 3 22 0
Yangkaralda (ER 3004) Kayardild 24 6 18 0
Barada (ER 2798) Gangulu 18 3 15 0
Yulparija (ER 2956) Yulparija 23 6 17 0
Ngan'gityemerri (ER 2635) Nangikurrunggurr 23 4 19 0
Warray (ER 2664) Warray 21 5 16 0
Linngithigh (ER 2912) Linngithigh 29 5 24 0
Parnkalla (ER 2935) Banggarla 23 3 20 0
Bundjalung (ER 2712) Yugumbir 20 8 12 0
Amurdak (ER 2666) Amurdak 24 3 21 0
Yagara (ER 2731) Yagara 19 6 13 0
Ngaliwurru (ER 2684) Ngaliwurru 21 4 17 0
Waka Waka (ER 2944) Wakawaka 23 10 13 0

The ER source data comes from Erich Round and should be cited as:

Round, Erich R. 2019. Phonemic inventories of Australia.

Notes on the inventories and their compilation from Erich are below. The data are available in phoible long format in ER_inventories.tsv and contain only phonemes, with no information on allophones or linguistic tone.

OVERVIEW

Phonemic analysis is a valuable prelude to cross-linguistic comparison. Nevertheless, phonemicization is not a deterministic process and linguistic practice is not uniform. This has certain consequences for the compilation and use of cross-linguistic summary datasets such as this one. The following notes are arranged by topic and highlight how these issues have been accommodated in the compilation of the Australian dataset.

LABELS

The labeling of phonemes acts to group phonemes, implicitly or explicitly, into classes (e.g. ‘the stops’), yet phonemes may class together differently with respect to allophony vs phonological alternations vs phonotactics and even vs their history. Consequently, analysts are often forced to choose between multiple conceivable classifications, each of which captures only some of the facts. When they do so, one analyst’s criteria may differ from those of another. As a result, some cross-doculectal variation in phoneme labels may reflect more a variation among analysts’ necessary choices between multiple, defensible options, than empirical differences among languages. Where this appears to be the case, I have in some instances relabelled phonemes relative to source documents, to promote cross-linguistic comparability. For example, stops in languages with no contrast for voicing or fortition are labelled here with plain, voiceless IPA symbols, following widespread phonological practice. More cases are noted below.

SEGMENTATION

The task of dividing words into segments can itself present challenges, since in this task phonemic analysis becomes interdependent with the analysis of phonotactics. The phonotactics of Australian languages are highly constrained (Hamilton 1996), and this has enabled researchers to converge on broadly similar criteria for segmentation, enhancing the comparability of cross-linguistic data. However, in cases where languages contain unusual phonotactic sequences at the phonetic level, the analytical response in terms of segmentation and phonemicization has been more varied. By comparing across sources, it is possible to discern certain recurrent patterns of analytic practice. The next set of topics records attempts to accommodate these issues in the Australian dataset. The aim has been to bring to the fore empirical variation, over the variability among analytic choices.

COMPLEX SEGMENTS

Some sources analyse a phonotactically unusual phonetic sequence [X+Y], particularly ones which descend historically from [X] or [Y], as a complex phonemic segment /XY/; others analyse it as a phonemic sequence /X/+/Y/. However, no complex segment /XY/ posited for an Australian language is contrastive with /X/+/Y/, at least under some, reasonable set of assumptions about the rest of the inventory. Consequently, for the purposes of enhanced cross-linguistic comparability, all such sequences are treated in the dataset as two-segment phonemic sequences, /X/+/Y/. Notes on specific types: (1) A minority of Australian languages permit phonetic stop+nasal or stop+lateral sequences only at homorganic places of articulation. In original sources these are analysed as sequences (e.g. Sommer 1969 on Kunjen) or single complex segments (e.g. Breen 1981 on Arandic languages). (2) Almost all Australian languages permit phonetic nasal+stop sequences at homorganic places of articulation, but word-initially they are rare. In original sources they are analysed as sequences (e.g. Dixon 1991 on Mbabaram) or single complex segments (e.g. Crowley 1981 on Mpakwithi). (3) Few Australian languages permit phonetic stop+liquid sequences. The sequence [tr] in particular is sometimes analysed in original sources as a single complex segment (e.g. Hale 1997 on Linngithigh). (4) In Australian languages [w] often colors neighboring vowels; furthermore, most Australian languages permit [C+w] phonetic sequences, and these may be temporally coarticulated (e.g. Round 2009:65 on Kayardild). In some languages, these facts are analysed with phonemic /C/+/w/ sequences (e.g. Round 2009), but occasionally with complex, labialized consonants (Dixon 1991 on Mbabaram). (5) Harvey (2011) presents arguments for analysing ‘pre-palatalized’ complex segments in Arandic languages as /j/+/C/.

CORONAL PLACES OF ARTICULATION

All Australian languages contrast either one or two ‘apical’ places of articulation, where the primary constriction is formed with the tongue tip; and either one or two ‘laminal’ places of articulation, with constriction formed by the tongue blade. In this dataset, laminals are labelled either as dental (with the IPA bridge diacritic) or pre-palatal (with IPA curl). Apicals are plain /t/, /n/ etc. for apical alveolars, IPA retroflex for retroflexes, and for languages with no alveolar–retroflex contrast, the single apical place is explicitly labelled as apical (with the IPA inverted bridge diacritic).

STOP SERIES

Some Australian languages contrast two series of stops, typically matched at all superlaryngeal places of articulation, and sources may phonemicize them in a number of ways. For the purposes of enhanced cross-linguistic comparability, this dataset follows Butcher (2004, 2012) and phonemicizes them as fortis and lenis, with no voicing contrast.

TAPS, FLAPS AND LENIS APICAL STOPS

Some Australian languages have an extra, voiced lenis, stop-like or tap/flap-like phoneme solely at the apical place(s) of articulation. Sources may phonemicize these as voiced/lenis stops or as taps/flaps (see Breen 1997 for discussion). For cross-linguistic comparability, they are phonemicized here as tap/flaps.

editor's note: The retroflex lateral flap that was originally represented as ɺ̢ (027A+0322, the alveolar lateral flap + retroflex hook) in Dr. Round's data has been changed by the PHOIBLE editors to be represented as ɺ̠̺ (027A+0320+033A, the alveolar lateral flap with retraction and apical diacritics).

VOWEL LENGTH

Most sources phonemicize long vowels as a single long vowel segment. Some phonemicize them as two, adjacent short vowels (e.g. McDonald & Wurm 1979:5 for Wangkumara [a:]). The phonemicization here is as the single, long segment.

GLOTTAL STOP

Some sources analyse the unpredictable presence/absence of a glottal stop as a prosodic feature (e.g. Waters 1980 for Djinang) and others as a phonemic segment. The representation here is as a phonemic segment.