Inventory Xhosa (GM 1319)

Segment class Segment Marginal Allophones Representation

Consonants (Pulmonic)

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ̪ ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (Non-Pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular

Vowels

Vowel Quadrilateral
Front Central Back Close Close-mid Open-mid Open

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other Segments

LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
ɡ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
ɡ̤ǃ LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ɮ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER LEZH - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
˦ MODIFIER LETTER HIGH TONE BAR
LATIN SMALL LETTER C - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
tsʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - LATIN SMALL LETTER S - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ɲ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH LEFT HOOK - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
mpʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER M - LATIN SMALL LETTER P - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
LATIN SMALL LETTER C - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
ntʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - LATIN SMALL LETTER T - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
m̤b̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER M - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER B - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
LATIN SMALL LETTER M - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK
ŋkʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - LATIN SMALL LETTER K - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ɟ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J WITH STROKE - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
kxʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN SMALL LETTER X - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
LATIN SMALL LETTER P - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
w LATIN SMALL LETTER W
kǃʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
n̤d̤z̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER Z - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
ɲcʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH LEFT HOOK - LATIN SMALL LETTER C - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
LATIN SMALL LETTER T - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ŋǃʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
LATIN SMALL LETTER Z - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
˨ MODIFIER LETTER LOW TONE BAR
m̤b̤v̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER M - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER B - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER V - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
n̤d̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
ŋǁ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK
ɲ̤ɟ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH LEFT HOOK - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J WITH STROKE - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
kǁʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
LATIN SMALL LETTER T - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
n̠t̠ʃʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
tsʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - LATIN SMALL LETTER S - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
ŋ̤ǁ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK
t̠ʃʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ntlʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - LATIN SMALL LETTER T - LATIN SMALL LETTER L - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ɡ̤ǀ LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER V - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
ŋ̤ǀ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK
n̤d̤ɮ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER LEZH - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
kxʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN SMALL LETTER X - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ŋǀ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK
ŋǁʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
kǀʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
ɡ̤ǁ LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK
d̠̤ʒ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER EZH - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
mpfʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER M - LATIN SMALL LETTER P - LATIN SMALL LETTER F - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ŋ̤ɡ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
LATIN SMALL LETTER B - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
kǀʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
ɦ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH HOOK - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
LATIN SMALL LETTER P - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
ɣ̤ LATIN SMALL LETTER GAMMA - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
ŋ̤ǃ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK
ŋǃ LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK
ntsʼ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - LATIN SMALL LETTER T - LATIN SMALL LETTER S - MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE
n̠̤d̠̤ʒ LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER EZH
t̠ʃʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H