Inventory Panjabi (SPA)

Source name: Punjabi

Segment Representation Segment class Combined class

Consonants (Pulmonic)

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ̪ ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (Non-Pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular

Vowels

Vowel Quadrilateral
Front Central Back Close Close-mid Open-mid Open

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other Segments

kʰː LATIN SMALL LETTER K - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER P - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
d̻ː LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
t̠ʃʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
t̠ʃʰː LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
pʰː LATIN SMALL LETTER P - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER S - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
t̻ː LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
LATIN SMALL LETTER B - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
ʈʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH RETROFLEX HOOK - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
ʈʰː LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH RETROFLEX HOOK - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
ɡː LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
d̠ʒ LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER EZH
ẽ̞ LATIN SMALL LETTER E - COMBINING DOWN TACK BELOW - COMBINING TILDE
t̠ʃ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH
ʈː LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH RETROFLEX HOOK - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
˩ MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-LOW TONE BAR
n̻ː LATIN SMALL LETTER N - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
t̻ʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
LATIN SMALL LETTER E - COMBINING DOWN TACK BELOW
ɖː LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH TAIL - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER M - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER Z - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
s̻ː LATIN SMALL LETTER S - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
t̻ʰː LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER P - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
˧ MODIFIER LETTER MID TONE BAR
l̻ː LATIN SMALL LETTER L - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
t̠ʃː LATIN SMALL LETTER T - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
LATIN SMALL LETTER O - COMBINING DOWN TACK BELOW
d̠ʒː LATIN SMALL LETTER D - COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW - LATIN SMALL LETTER EZH - MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON
w LATIN SMALL LETTER W
õ̞ LATIN SMALL LETTER O - COMBINING DOWN TACK BELOW - COMBINING TILDE
LATIN SMALL LETTER L - COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
˦˥ MODIFIER LETTER HIGH TONE BAR - MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-HIGH TONE BAR