Inventory Nama (Namibia) (SPA)

Source name: Nama

Segment Representation Segment class Combined class

Consonants (Pulmonic)

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ̪ ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (Non-Pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular

Vowels

Vowel Quadrilateral
Front Central Back Close Close-mid Open-mid Open

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other Segments

˥˦ MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-HIGH TONE BAR - MODIFIER LETTER HIGH TONE BAR
˩˨ MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-LOW TONE BAR - MODIFIER LETTER LOW TONE BAR
˧˥ MODIFIER LETTER MID TONE BAR - MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-HIGH TONE BAR
˧˦ MODIFIER LETTER MID TONE BAR - MODIFIER LETTER HIGH TONE BAR
kxʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN SMALL LETTER X - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
˧˩ MODIFIER LETTER MID TONE BAR - MODIFIER LETTER EXTRA-LOW TONE BAR
ã̟ LATIN SMALL LETTER A - COMBINING PLUS SIGN BELOW - COMBINING TILDE
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER ALVEOLAR CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER LATERAL CLICK
LATIN SMALL LETTER K - LATIN LETTER DENTAL CLICK
tsʰ LATIN SMALL LETTER T - LATIN SMALL LETTER S - MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H
˨ MODIFIER LETTER LOW TONE BAR
LATIN SMALL LETTER A - COMBINING PLUS SIGN BELOW